Kidney stones can be an extremely painful condition that affects many people. While there are several medical treatment options available, some people look to home remedies like cranberry juice to help prevent and treat kidney stones. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the research behind cranberry juice and kidney stones and provide tips on how to use cranberry juice safely and effectively if you have kidney stones.
What are Kidney Stones?
Kidney stones form when minerals and salt accumulate in the kidneys and crystallize into stone-like deposits. The most common types of kidney stones are calcium stones, uric acid stones, struvite stones, and cystine stones.
Kidney stones can range in size from a tiny grain of sand to larger than a golf ball. Small stones may pass through the urinary tract on their own, but larger ones can get lodged and block the flow of urine, causing severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and blood in the urine.
Some of the leading causes and risk factors for kidney stones include:
- Family history
- High sodium diet
- Low calcium diet
- Certain medications
Kidney stones affect about 1 in 11 people in the United States at some point in their lives. Recurrent kidney stones can be a chronic problem, so it’s important to try to prevent them from forming again after passing or surgically removing them.
What is Cranberry Juice?
Cranberry juice is made from the fruit of cranberry plants. Along with water and natural sweeteners, 100% pure cranberry juice contains:
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin K1
- Antioxidants like polyphenols and anthocyanins
There are two main types of cranberry juice – cranberry juice cocktail and 100% pure cranberry juice. The cocktail versions contain added sugar and water. 100% cranberry juice is tart, so some prefer diluting it with water or mixing it with other juices.
Cranberries have long been used in traditional medicine to treat bladder and urinary tract infections. And modern research has confirmed that cranberries have compounds that can help prevent bacteria like E.coli from adhering to the lining of the urinary tract.
Can Cranberry Juice Help Prevent Kidney Stones?
There is some research indicating that cranberry juice has properties that could help prevent the formation of certain types of kidney stones. Here’s an overview of the evidence:
1. Prevents Calcium Oxalate Stones
Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stones. Some studies have found that cranberry juice can help reduce the level of ionized calcium in urine, which can lower the risk of these stones forming:
|Single-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial in human subjects (Journal of Endourology, 2021)||Drinking 15 ounces of cranberry juice concentrate daily for 6 weeks significantly lowered ionized calcium levels in urine vs. placebo.|
|Randomized controlled pilot study in kidney stone formers (Urology, 2015)||1 liter of cranberry juice daily for 2 weeks lowered urinary ionized calcium levels.|
Researchers believe that the flavonoids and phenolic acids in cranberries can inhibit the crystallization and growth of calcium oxalate kidney stones.
2. Contains Citrate
Citrate is a natural chemical found in many foods. Studies show citrate in urine can bind to calcium and help prevent calcium stones from forming.
Cranberry juice contains citrate, though not as much as some other fruit juices like lemonade. One study found drinking cranberry juice daily moderately increased citrate levels in urine (Journal of Endourology, 2008).
3. May Inhibit Bacterial Growth
Studies show cranberries contain proanthocyanidins that can prevent certain bacteria like E. coli from adhering and growing in the urinary tract. This antimicrobial effect could potentially inhibit bacterial growth associated with struvite kidney stones (Journal of Endourology, 2016).
However, more research is still needed to confirm cranberries’ effects specifically on stone-causing urinary tract bacteria.
Are There Risks of Cranberry Juice for Kidney Stones?
For most people, enjoying cranberry juice in moderation is unlikely to pose major health risks. But there are some potential side effects and cautions to be aware of:
- Kidney stone risk from oxalate – Cranberries contain oxalate, which can contribute to kidney stones in some people prone to calcium oxalate stones.
- Drug interactions – Cranberry juice may interact with blood thinning medications like warfarin and some diabetes medications. Check with your pharmacist.
- GI symptoms – Drinking large amounts of cranberry juice can cause nausea, upset stomach, or diarrhea in some people.
- Sugar content – The cocktail versions of cranberry juice contain lots of added sugar, which should be minimized for kidney health.
These potential risks are one reason why the research has mainly focused on cranberry extract supplements rather than juice. Concentrated cranberry supplements contain more of the active ingredients without the sugar and oxalate content.
Tips for Using Cranberry Juice
Here are some tips if you want to incorporate cranberry juice to help prevent recurring kidney stones:
- Drink 100% pure unsweetened cranberry juice if you can tolerate the tart taste.
- Cut the juice with water, or mix with sweeter juices like apple or grape.
- Aim for around 8 ounces diluted juice 2-3 times per day.
- Avoid “juice cocktail” versions with added sugar.
- Look for cranberry extract supplements if you can’t tolerate juice.
- Always stay well hydrated by drinking plenty of water too.
- Check with your doctor about potential interactions if on medications.
The Bottom Line
Current research indicates that cranberry juice has properties that could help prevent kidney stones, especially calcium oxalate and struvite stones. The juice seems to help lower stone-forming compounds in urine and may have antimicrobial effects.
However, there are some potential risks like kidney stone recurrence in susceptible individuals. Pure unsweetened cranberry juice in moderate amounts is likely safe for most people. But it’s best to drink it diluted, avoid juice cocktails with added sugar, and discuss it with your doctor.
Cranberry juice could be a nice complementary home remedy for kidney stones alongside lifestyle changes like staying hydrated and limiting sodium. But it should not replace following your doctor’s treatment recommendations, which may include prescription medications and surgery for larger stones.