What are the 5 mother cocktails?

Cocktails have become an integral part of drinking culture. While there are countless cocktails to choose from, a few key drinks are considered the “mother” cocktails. These original mixes laid the foundation for the diverse cocktail menu we enjoy today. Keep reading to discover the 5 must-know mother cocktails that every drink enthusiast should be familiar with.

Old Fashioned

The Old Fashioned is regarded as the first true cocktail, originating in the early 1800s. This classic mix showcases whiskey, traditionally American bourbon, blended with sugar and aromatic bitters. The Old Fashioned combines only a few core ingredients but relies on technique – like muddling fruit and slowly diluting the liquor – to build a balanced, flavorful drink. It epitomizes the strong, spirit-forward cocktail style that defined the early days of mixology.


The crisply refreshing Martini delivers an icy jolt of gin or vodka. While 19th century cocktails trended sweet, the dry Martini provided a bracing counterpoint. The original recipe called for equal parts sweet and dry vermouth mixed with gin. Over time, the Martini evolved into a cleaner, drier drink highlighted by boozy gin or vodka. Shaken or stirred and garnished with an olive or lemon twist, the modern Martini embodies cocktail elegance.


Whiskey and vermouth collide in the Manhattan, a timeless cocktail believed to have been invented in New York City in the 1870s. Rye or bourbon mingles with sweet vermouth and dashes of bitters, often Angostura. A Maraschino cherry makes the perfect garnish. The richness of whiskey with the herbaceous vermouth creates an ideal balance. Sip a Manhattan to channel old school cocktail sophistication.


A Daiquiri showcases rum in a simple, refreshing package. Created in the late 19th century by American mining engineers in Cuba, the original Daiquiri featured rum, lime juice, and sugar. As a classic sour cocktail, it emphasized citrus juices and sweetener to balance spirit. Later iterations expanded the fruit options but maintained the core formula. The Hemingway Daiquiri, with grapefruit juice and maraschino liqueur, is a famous riff on the original. The Daiquiri introduced rum as a mixing spirit and cemented the sour structure.

Whiskey Sour

Like the Daiquiri highlighted rum, the Whiskey Sour demonstrated whiskey’s versatility in cocktails. This late 19th century creation combines whiskey, lemon juice, sugar, and egg white for a frothy, luscious texture. The egg white softens the liquor’s bite and contributes a silky mouthfeel. While rye and bourbon feature prominently, scotch and Irish whiskeys also work well. The Whiskey Sour popularized whiskey as more than just a neat pouring spirit. It belongs in the mother cocktail canon for making whiskey accessible in a mixed drink.


Whether honoring whiskey, gin, rum, or vodka, each mother cocktail revealed how to balance and transform spirits into nuanced drinks. They set the template for mixing, balancing, and masking strong liquors into pleasurable cocktails. While tastes have expanded, modern mixology still owes much to these original concoctions. Next time you order an Old Fashioned, Martini, Manhattan, Daiquiri, or Whiskey Sour, toast the mother cocktails that made the bar menu possible.

Cocktail Name Main Spirit Origin Date Ingredients
Old Fashioned Bourbon whiskey Early 1800s Whiskey, sugar, bitters
Martini Gin or vodka 1860s Spirit, dry vermouth
Manhattan Rye whiskey or bourbon 1870s Whiskey, sweet vermouth, bitters
Daiquiri Rum Late 1800s Rum, lime juice, sugar
Whiskey Sour Whiskey Late 1800s Whiskey, lemon juice, sugar, egg white

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