Sinus drainage can cause discomfort and irritation as mucus drips down the back of the throat. Luckily, there are several methods that can help break up mucus and clear sinus congestion to provide relief.
One of the simplest and most effective ways to break up mucus is by inhaling steam. The moist heat helps to thin out mucus and open up nasal passages. To use steam therapy, boil a pot of water and carefully lean over it with a towel draped over your head to trap the steam. Inhale the vapors for 5-10 minutes at a time, being careful not to burn yourself. You can add menthol, eucalyptus oil, or Vicks VapoRub to the water to amplify the congestion-clearing effects.
Staying hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids can also help thin out mucus.Aim for at least eight glasses of water daily, and avoid alcohol and caffeinated drinks which can cause dehydration. Some herbal teas like chamomile, peppermint, and fenugreek may also help loosen phlegm when consumed regularly. You can also try sipping on chicken or vegetable broth, which can hydrate as well as provide electrolytes and nutrients.
Use a Saline Rinse
Saline nasal rinses can flush out mucus and clear sinus congestion. These rinses involve pouring a salt water solution into one nostril and letting it drain out the other. To make your own rinse at home, dissolve 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon of iodide-free salt and a pinch of baking soda into 8 ounces of warm distilled or filtered water. Use a bulb syringe, pulsatile rinse device, or neti pot to administer the solution into the nasal passages. Rinse each nostril for about 30 seconds as the solution flows through. Finish by blowing your nose gently to clear any remaining mucus.
Try Nasal Strips
Adhesive nasal strips can also help open nasal passages to improve mucus drainage. These strips contain flexible bands that lift open the nostrils to improve airflow. When nasal congestion is relieved, excess mucus can drain out more easily. Nasal strips are drug-free and can be worn safely while sleeping or exercising.
Use a Humidifier
Using a cool mist humidifier can add moisture to the air, helping thin out mucus consistency. This makes the mucus easier to expel from the nasal cavities. Clean humidifiers regularly to prevent growth of bacteria and fungi. Place several humidifiers throughout your home to maximize air moisture levels.
Apply a Warm Compress
Placing a warm, wet washcloth over your nose, cheeks, forehead and eyes can effectively loosen up mucus. The moist heat helps thin out sinus secretions so they drain more easily. A rice bag, hot water bottle or heating pad can all be used to apply gentle heat to the face. Perform this remedy for 10-15 minutes at a time to clear nasal congestion.
Spicy foods containing black or cayenne pepper can stimulate mucus thinning. Capsaicin, the active ingredient in hot peppers, irritates nerve endings inside the nose, prompting increased mucus production. This causes excess mucus to drain out, relieving congestion. Sprinkle black pepper on soups, eggs, or teas, or cook with cayenne pepper sauce. You can also smell freshly ground pepper to irritate nasal passages temporarily.
Guaifenesin is an over-the-counter expectorant that makes mucus thinner and less sticky. This allows it to be coughed up more easily. Guaifenesin is found in many cold and cough medications such as Mucinex. It can be taken orally in tablet form to thin out mucus from both upper respiratory infections and chronic conditions like sinusitis. Always follow dosage recommendations on the label.
Use Nasal Irrigation
Nasal irrigation with a neti pot involves rinsing the nasal cavity with saline solution. This can wash out thick mucus, allergens, and irritants. To perform this remedy, fill the neti pot with distilled, sterilized, previously boiled (and cooled), or filtered water and premixed saline packet. Tilt your head sideways over a sink and insert the spout into the upper nostril. Pour the solution gently until it drains from the lower nostril. Blow your nose and repeat on the other side. Rinse the device after each use.
Consider Prescription Medications
For chronic or severe sinus congestion, your doctor may recommend prescription meds to thin mucus. These include mucus-thinning drugs like Mucodyne and Acetylcysteine. Steroid nasal sprays can also reduce inflammation in the nasal passages to improve drainage. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics if a bacterial sinus infection is causing increased mucus production.
Use OTC Decongestants
Over-the-counter decongestants like pseudoephedrine shrink swollen nasal tissues so mucus can drain more easily. Decongestants come as oral tablets, nasal sprays, and liquid drops. They offer temporary relief of congestion but should not be used for more than a few days due to side effects. Check with your doctor before using decongestant medications.
Mucolytics are drugs that thin mucus to make it less sticky and viscous. Two common mucolytics available over-the-counter are N-acetylcysteine and guaifenesin. These work by breaking down mucus bonds so secretions are less dense. Taking mucolytics can help you cough up phlegm more easily from the nose, sinuses or chest.
Use Essential Oils
Inhaling the vapors from eucalyptus, peppermint, rosemary, tea tree and other essential oils can help stimulate nasal drainage. Add a few drops of oil to hot water or a diffuser and deeply inhale the scented mist. You can also mix a couple drops of oil with a carrier oil and apply beneath the nose. The aromas can trigger nasal secretions to drain. This provides congestion relief.
Acupressure involves applying gentle pressure to certain points on the body to stimulate circulation and drainage. Massaging the indentations on either side of the nose bridge, for example, may promote sinus drainage. Pressing on the sides of the nose in a downward motion can also help mobilize stuck mucus.
Drinking adequate fluids helps thin out mucus in the nasal passages and sinuses for better drainage. Aim for at least 64 ounces of water daily, along with herbal teas, broths, and juices. Caffeinated and alcoholic beverages can promote dehydration, worsening congestion.
Use Natural Supplements
Some herbal supplements may thin out mucus secretions and support nasal drainage. N-acetylcysteine, bromelain, and papain supplements can help break down sticky mucus. Quercetin, butterbur, and stinging nettle may also minimize inflammation in the sinuses. Talk to your doctor before trying new supplements.
Certain irritants can worsen nasal stuffiness and hamper mucus drainage. Smoke, air pollution, harsh chemicals in cleaning products, and scented candles or sprays can all trigger sinus swelling. Limit exposure to respiratory irritants in your home and workplace environment.
Try Nasal Polyps Medications
Nasal polyps are benign growths that form in the sinus cavities and nasal passages. When large, they can obstruct mucus drainage and cause congestion. Medications like nasal steroid sprays and oral steroids can shrink polyps to improve airflow and drainage. Surgery may be needed to remove very large polyps.
For some individuals, dairy products like milk, cheese, and yogurt can worsen production of thick mucus. The protein casein in dairy may stimulate excessive secretion of phlegm. Limiting dairy intake may help minimize thick secretions that congest the nasal cavities.
Use Cold or Cool Mist Humidifier
Adding moisture into the air with a cold water humidifier can help thin out thick mucus secretions that accumulate in the nasal passages and back of the throat. This allows the mucus to drain out more easily. Clean humidifiers regularly to prevent microorganism growth.
Inhaling steam helps loosen mucus and encourages nasal drainage. Boil a pot of water, remove from heat, and tent your head over the pot with a towel draped over to trap the steam. Breathe the moist air deeply for 5-10 minutes to thin out mucus so it can drain. Add herbs or essential oils to amplify the effects.
Consume Spicy Foods
Spicy foods containing hot sauces or chili peppers can stimulate mucus flow in the nasal passages. The capsaicin in peppers causes irritation that increases nasal secretions. The extra mucus production helps flush out stuck mucus and open up sinus congestion.
Try Elimination Diet
Food allergies or sensitivities may contribute to increased mucus production and clogged sinuses. Try eliminating common trigger foods like wheat, dairy, eggs, and soy for 2-3 weeks to see if nasal congestion improves. Reintroducing foods one at a time can help identify problematic items.
Consider Surgery for Structural Issues
Structural problems like a deviated septum or large nasal polyps can hamper proper sinus drainage. If congestion persists despite other treatments, talk to an ENT specialist. Surgery like septoplasty, polypectomy or sinus surgery may be warranted to correct issues interfering with mucus flow.
Avoid Flying with Congestion
Flying with congested sinuses or nasal inflammation can trap mucus inside the nasal cavities and block drainage. The pressure changes during flights can also worsen sinus swelling. Try to clear up congestion before air travel or postpone trips until you are feeling better.
Use Saline Nasal Sprays
Saline nasal sprays moisturize dry nasal tissues and help thin out mucus secretions for better drainage. Look for isotonic sprays that mimic the salinity of bodily fluids. Use a metered dose spray bottle to administer saline solution into each nostril several times per day as needed.
Oral antihistamines like Claritin, Zyrtec, and Allegra can reduce inflammation in the nasal passages caused by allergies. This helps open up sinus congestion and improve mucus flow. Antihistamines come in pill form and can be used daily to manage allergy symptoms and post-nasal drip.
Try a Neti Pot
A neti pot can flush excess mucus out of the nasal cavity for congestion relief. Fill with warm distilled or sterilized water and premixed salt packet. Tilt your head and insert the spout into one nostril, letting the water flow through your nasal passage and out the other nostril. Blow your nose and repeat on the other side.
Avoid Trigger Foods
Dairy products, gluten, and high-sugar foods may trigger increased phlegm production in some people. Limiting or avoiding trigger foods and beverages may help minimize excess mucus that can clog nasal passages and interfere with drainage.
Use Mucus-Thinning Medications
Over-the-counter expectorants like Mucinex, Robitussin Chest Congestion, and Nasatab thin out mucus so it can drain more easily. Cough suppressants like dextromethorphan also ease mucus drainage by reducing cough reflex. Use as directed on the label.
Sinus drainage and congestion can be cleared using a combination of home remedies, OTC medications, and prescriptions treatments. Drinking fluids, using steam, applying warm compresses, irrigating nasal passages, taking expectorants, and using saline sprays can all help mobilize mucus. Avoiding irritants and allergens, treating underlying conditions, and practicing good sinus hygiene also support healthy drainage and airflow.
Nasal Congestion Triggers Table
|Effect on Mucus
|Increased inflammation and mucus production
|Excess mucus secretion
|Nasal swelling and stuffiness
|Thick, sticky mucus
|Dairy, gluten, sugar
|Increased phlegm production
|Deviated septum, polyps
|Obstructed mucus drainage
|Trapped mucus due to pressure
This table outlines various triggers that can worsen nasal congestion by increasing mucus production, thickness, or interfering with proper drainage. Identifying and avoiding triggers can help improve sinus drainage.